10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and Histories

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and Histories

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and Histories

This article focuses on the 10 world best scientists: their inventions and histories; and their contributions to science.

These are biology, physics, mathematics, and chemistry scientists who have invented the and  developed different world devices and theories that general made crucial advances in medicine, genetics, astronomy, ecology, physics, engineering, etc.

 

First of all, who is a scientist?

A scientist is someone who investigates the secrets of nature. An inventor in the other hand is someone who tries to create useful products and devices; and some people have been incredibly successful in both endeavors.

Here are the top 10 world best scientists: their inventions and histories.

 

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and Histories

 

#1. Archimedes:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesArchimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity.

Lived C287 BC – C. 212 BC. Archimedes is the best known mathematician and scientist form ancient times. In addition to brilliant discoveries in mathematics and physics, he was also an inventor.

The Archimedes Screw:

Archimedes probably invented this device (The Archimedes Screw) when he visited Egypt, where it’s still used for irrigation. The screw is also helpful for lifting divided solids such as ash, grain and sand from a lower level to a higher level.

 

#2. Robert Hooke:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesRobert Hooke (1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

Hook discovered plant cells and the Hook’s law – the law of elasticity. He also invented the balance spring vital for accurate timekeeping in pocket watches.

He invented a machine that cut teeth for cogs used in watches. These cogs were cut in fine detail than any person could have managed, enabling more delicate watch mechanisms to be developed.

 

 

#3. Benjamin Franklin:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesBenjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

Lived 1706 – 1790. Benjamin Franklin discovered one of the fundamental laws of physics – the law of conservation of electric charge – and proved that lightning of electricity.

He also:

  • Invented bifocal spectacles
  • Invented the Franklin stove
  • Invented the lightening rod

 

#4. Alessandro Volta:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesAlessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power, who is credited as the inventor of the electrical battery and the discoverer of methane.

He was the first person to isolate methane gas. He discovered the methane mixed with air could be exploded using an electric spark: this is the basis of the internal combustion engine.

He also found that electric potential in a capacitor is directly propositional to the electric charge. Oh, and he invented the electric battery.

 

#5. Louis Pasteur:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesLouis Pasteur was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

Lived 1822 – 1895. He discovered that some molecules love mirror images. This can be described as left-hand and right-hand version of a chemical compound.

He also banished forever the concept of spontaneous generation in Biology – the idea that bacterial life could just appear from nowhere in fruit or that maggots could appear spontaneously in meat.

Pasteur invented the process of Pasteurization and Patented in 1862.

During the pasteurization, farm and brewery products such as milk, wine, and beer are heated briefly for a temperature between 60 and 100 oC, killing micro-organisms that can cause them to go bad.

 

#6. Lord Kelvin:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesLord Kelvin, was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

Lived 1824 – 1924. Lord Kelvin whose original name was William Thomson, codified the first two laws of thermodynamics and deduced that the absolute zero of temperature is 273.15 oC.

He was honored from this with the naming of the Kelvin temperature scale. On the Kelvin scale, absolute zero is found at 0 Kelvin.

In addition to his work as a physics professor, he was also an inventor, devising equipment which he patented that allowed transatlantic telegraph signaling – -to take place via an undersea cable.

 

#7. William Crookes:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesSir William Crookes was an English chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.

Lived 1832 -1919. William Crookes was a physical chemist who discovered and named the element Thallium.

In 1875, he invented the Crookes’ tube, an evacuated electric discharge tube which he used to generate so-called cathode rays.

We now know that cathode rays are streams of electrons. Crookes used magnetic fields to prove that cathode rays consisted of negatively charged particles.

 

#8. Marie Sklodowska Curie:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesMarie Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity

Lived 1867 – 1934 AD. Marie Curie holds record for the first female to be awarded with a noble price. Inventor and scientist, Curie was born as the youngest of five children in the year 1867 in Warsaw, Poland.

Marie Curie has always remained a source of inspiration and motivation for different female scientists because of her determination to work. She invented the first mobile X-ray machine which helped to check the injured soldiers in battlefield.

Radium is another great invention from her. Curie experimented different elements to check their radio activity and found Thorium. She also invented the pitch-blend which was the source of radiation in a mixture more powerful that Uranium or Thorium.

She is also called the “Mother of the atom bomb” with her invention of the radioactive materials. However, with all her brilliant, hard work and patience in careful experiments she performed, her own invention killed her because of radiation poising in 1934.

 

#9. Michael Faraday:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesMichael Faraday was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

Borne 1791, British citizen Michael Faraday was a son of a blacksmith who had to leave school in the fourth grade. He started working as a bookbinder and taught himself to read and write. He developed a fascination with science particularly in electricity.

Later he studied a lot of serious academics work during his days. Faraday is specially known for his discoveries of electromagnetic inductions and rotations, filed theory, dia-magnetization and the magneto-optical effects.

This humble genus invented the electric motor and Faraday’s ring. Faraday’s inquisitive and curiosity nature made him take Chemistry lectures and taught at the Royal Institution as a lecturer later when Humphrey Davy retired.

He also published research papers optical deceptions, condensation of gasses and isolation of Benzene from gas oil. Michael Faraday also wrote books on “Experimental Researches in Electricity” and the “Chemical History of the Candle”. Michael Faraday died in 1867.

 

#10. Galileo Galileo:

10 World Best Scientists: Their Inventions and HistoriesGalileo Galilei was an Italian polymath. Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution.

Lived 1564 – 1642 AD. Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, Galileo is called as the father of modern scientists because of his discoveries in astronomy and physic.

He was sent to study medicine by his father, but he chose his career in science and mathematics and made the first telescope to observe start and planets.

He also discovered the law of pendulum as he watched a chandelier swing in the cathedral of Pisa. He also discovered that the surface of moon was nit smooth but contained burrows and holes to what he called crater.

Galileo discovered 4 revolving moons around Jupiter which are named after him. He proved what Copernicus said about sun being the center of the solar system. Galileo became blind in his old age and died in the year 1642.

 

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